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- Contemporary trends in pediatric sedation and analgesia.Emerg Clin North Am. 2002; 20: 1999-2002
- Pain, hurt, and harm—the ethics of pain control in infants and children.N Engl J Med. 1994; 331: 541-544
EMLA cream (Astra-Zenica USA). Available from: URL: http://www.astrazeneca-us.com/products
- Predicting the need for topical anesthetic in the pediatric emergency department.Pediatrics. 1999; 104: e19
Iontocaine (IOMED, Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah). Available from: URL: http://www.iomed.com/products/index.htm
- Lidocaine iontophoresis for topical anesthesia before intravenous line placement in children.J Pediatr. 1998; 132: 1061-1063
ELA-Max cream (Ferndale Laboratories, Ferndale, MI). Available from: URL: http://www.ferndalelabs.com
- A clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of ELA-Max (4% liposomal lidocaine) as compared to EMLA cream for pain reduction of venipunctures in children.Pediatrics. 2002; 109: 1093-1099
Ethyl-Chloride, Flouri-Methane, Fluro-Ethyl (Gebauer Company, Cleveland, OH). Available from: URL: http://www.gebauerco.com
- Vapocoolant spray is equally effective as EMLA cream in reducing immunization pain in school-aged children.Pediatrics. 1997; 100: e5
- Suckling and sucrose-induced analgesia in human newborns.Pain. 1999; 82: 1-13
- The efficacy of sucrose for relieving procedural pain in neonates—a systemic review and meta-analysis.Acta Paediatr. 1997; 86: 837-842
*Part of Ms Ryan's salary was previously paid by the PainFree Pediatrics Program, which has financial contributions from the following pharmaceutical companies: Ferndale Labs (manufacturers of ELA-Max), Astra-Zenica (manufacturers of EMLA), and Gebauer (manufacturers of Fluro-Ethyl, Ethyl Chloride, and Fluori-Methane).
★J Emerg Nurs 2003;29:127-32.