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The Journal of Emergency Nursing, the official journal of the Emergency Nurses Association (ENA), is committed to disseminating high-quality, peer-reviewed manuscripts relevant to all areas of emergency nursing practice. Our intended impact is to improve health outcomes, and we aim to accomplish our intended impact by disseminating rigorous research and scholarship.
The Journal advances and integrates the mission, vision, and values of the ENA with the current goal to synergize the emergency nursing community, governance and leadership, knowledge, quality and safety, and advocacy.
Impact Factor: 2.3
Abstracting and Indexing: Indexed or abstracted in International Nursing Index, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, Journal Citation Report, and Scopus.
Preparing your manuscript for the Journal of Emergency Nursing. Find the journal aims and scope, manuscript types, and manuscript preparation guidance here.
Submission Checklist. Find information here on concise the checklist to guide your manuscript preparation and submission.
Submitting your manuscript to the Journal of Emergency Nursing. Find detailed information here about the Journal of Emergency Nursing submission system and what to expect after submission, including peer review, open access, and what to expect after a decision has been made on your paper.
Details on the Journal of Emergency Nursing Ethics, Policies, Forms, and Requirements. Find information here on journal policies and requirements.
Direct questions to Managing Editor Annie Kelly at [email protected] or 413-427-3620.
PREPARING YOUR MANUSCRIPT FOR THE JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY NURSING
General Manuscript Types
The Journal of Emergency Nursing publishes the following full-length and department/section manuscripts. Submission information is provided below.
Full-Length Manuscripts: Research (including Quality Improvement & Study Protocols), Quality Improvement Projects, case Evidence Based Practice Projects, Program Evaluation, Advances in Clinical Care, Clinically Based Reviews, Systematic Reviews, Narrative Reviews, and Clinical Science Translation Reviews. The Clinical Science Translation Reviews in more detail appears at the end of the "Preparing your Manuscript for the Journal of Emergency Nursing" instructions. An electronic copy of Organizational Institutional Review Board or Ethics Letter of Approval is required before the start of your research, quality improvement, or study protocols.
Other Substantive Department/Section Manuscripts: Advanced Emergency Clinicians' Corner, Case Review, Clinical Nurses Forum, Emergency Nursing Review Questions, Geriatric Update, Heart Matters, Images, Impressions, Injury Prevention, International Emergency Nursing, Leadership Section, Nurse Educator, Pediatric Update, Pharm/Tox Corner, Trauma Notebook, Triage Decisions, and Understanding Research. More detail on the focus of each section, with contact information for section editors, appears at the end of the "Preparing your Manuscript for the Journal of Emergency Nursing" instructions.
Blog: 'On the Other Side of the Rails' at the jenonline.org website. Online only.
Letters to the Editor: The Journal of Emergency Nursing invites letters to the editor. While the focus of such letters can be a personal narrative as an emergency specialist or a topic of special interest to the writer, all letters must be relevant to emergency nursing practice to be considered for publication. Most frequently, letters are in response to a recent manuscript published in the Journal of Emergency Nursing and provide additional information or discussion.
All manuscripts and journal activities are expected to adhere to Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication. Studies on human subjects require documentation of a policy that exempts the project from ethical committee approval, an ethics committee letter determining the project is exempt from review, or ethics committee approval. Appropriate consents, permissions, and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. The author must retain written consents but copies for individual patients should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) must the author provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the manuscript and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.
Authors must disclose to the editor, in a cover letter and in response to an automatic prompt online at the time of submission, any commercial associations that could pose a conflict of interest or financial bias. Corresponding authors are also responsible for submitting co-authors' Conflict of Interest declarations. This declaration includes transparency regarding consultation fees, patent-licensing arrangements, company stock, as well as payments for conducting or publicizing a study, travel, honoraria, gifts, and/or meals related to any commercial association posing a potential conflict. If the article is accepted for publication, the editor will determine how any conflict of interest should be disclosed. All protentional or actual conflicts of interest are to be provided on every manuscript JEN accepts for readers knowledge. Authors are expected to fulfill the requirements of their employer's publication policy before submitting their manuscripts.
Initial Style and Formatting Preparation for All Manuscripts
Authors may submit their manuscript as a single file. Additionally, any figures and tables are to be submitted in their own separate files. Authors will be prompted to complete and submit a Conflict of Interest Statement. The journal prefers Word in any suitable format or layout, and figures and tables can be included within the text in addition to thier own separate files. Because all papers are double-blind peer-reviewed, author names and identifying information are not to be placed in the body of the text.
All text pages must be numbered and include 'Continuous' line numbering.
Figures should be of high enough quality for refereeing.
There are no strict formatting requirements, but all research and review manuscripts must contain the essential elements to evaluate a manuscript (Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions). Research manuscripts must be reported using the appropriate reporting guidelines available at https://www.equator-network.org/reporting-guidelines/
Authors must format their references according to the AMA Manual of Style, 11th Edition, used by the journal. Author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, manuscript title (where required), year of publication, volume and issue/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI numbers in references is required when citing journal articles.
Preregistration of clinical trials and systematic reviews is strongly encouraged.
Recommended Length for Initial Submission
The recommended length for research and review manuscripts: no more than 3500 words (excluding abstract, tables, figures, and references); ≤5 tables and/or figures; <75 references. Justified exceptions to increase word count, the number of references, or tables/figures may be requested by the editor for specific study types.
The recommended length for case reviews, department/section manuscripts: no more than 2000 words (excluding abstract, tables, figures, and references); ≤5 tables and/or figures; <50 references.
Supplementary material is welcomed for all manuscript types.
Specific to the Journal of Emergency Nursing
Authors also are strongly encouraged to include the following on the initial submission to facilitate editor and reviewer evaluation for coherence with journal aims and scope:
The 'Implications for Emergency Nursing' section is to be placed between the 'Discussion' and 'Conclusions' sections in the body of the text. This is a critical element of the manuscript. It should be clear how the paper relates to emergency nursing and how emergency nurses can use the information in their practice (to support or change their practice).
All research, review, and case review manuscripts are to begin with the heading "Contribution to Emergency Nursing Practice" to be followed with the authors' responses to the 3 questions provided below. Limit this section to 120 words or fewer:
What is already known about this topic?
What does this paper add to the currently published literature?
What is the most important implication for clinical emergency nursing practice?
Transparent reporting checklists
All research, review, and case review manuscripts are to follow the EQUATOR Network (www.equator-network.org) reporting guideline that most closely matches the study design. Logic models need to be included in program development and evaluation manuscripts. Section/department manuscripts that report the development of an intervention or evaluate clinical guideline(s) are also to follow relevant EQUATOR Network transparent reporting guidance. The following table lists common designs and checklists submitted to the Journal of Emergency Nursing:
Case Review (Case Review Section only)
STARD and TRIPOD
Research Study Protocols
Clinical Practice Guideline
Self-Administered Surveys of Clinicians
Policy Intervention Development (Section/Department manuscript)
Intervention Development (Section/Department manuscript)
Not all Program evaluations, Clinically Based Reviews, Narrative Reviews, or Clinical Science Translation Reviews will have a corresponding EQUATOR Network guideline. These will be considered on a case-by-case basis.
REVISED SUBMISSION PREPARATION
The Journal of Emergency Nursing utilizes the AMA Manual of Style, 11th Edition. Conform all aspects of the submitted manuscript to this format, with the following additions, modifications, and clarifications:
The title page should include the manuscript title, full name(s) of author(s), academic degrees, position, institution, city, and state. If applicable, the author(s) ENA chapter name, the author(s) ORCID number, and the author(s) Twitter handle. Author credentials are to be listed in the following order: highest academic credential (e.g., MSN), licensure (e.g., RN), certifications (e.g., CEN), and honorary recognition (e.g., FAEN). Include postal address, telephone numbers, email address, and Twitter handle. Authors may include their pronouns on the title page. This is not required.
A CRediT author statement should be included on the title page. The taxonomy and Elsevier policy can be found here. An example CRediT statement is as follows: Zhang San: Conceptualization, Methodology, Software; Priya Singh: Data curation, Writing- Original draft preparation; Wang Wu: Visualization, Investigation; Jan Jansen: Supervision; Ajay Kumar: Software, Validation; Sun Qi: Writing-Reviewing and Editing. All authors must meet ICMJE recommendations for authorship criteria:
Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
Final approval of the version to be published; AND
Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Provide a structured abstract of ≤250 words with the following headings: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Conclusion for research, review, evidence-based practice, and quality improvement manuscripts. Provide an unstructured abstract for clinical, focused or column papers that are not research and case review papers as follows: 1–2 sentences about the overarching clinical problem; a purpose statement; a quasi-methods statement indicating the manuscript is a case review, clinical summary, or another manuscript type; up to three main points or reader learning objectives from the manuscript. No abbreviations or references/citations should appear in the abstract.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) whenever possible. Keywords must use American English spelling and avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Body of Text
The Journal of Emergency Nursing style uses standard abbreviations consistently throughout the manuscript. Abbreviations must be spelled out at first mention, followed in parentheses by the abbreviation. The terms "emergency nurse," "emergency physician," "emergency nurse practitioner," and "emergency nurse manager" are strongly encouraged when referring to the individual who practices in the emergency specialty. Use "prescribe," "prescription," or "apply protocols" in place of "order" as often as possible. Adhere to the use of inclusive language. Inclusive language honors diversity, conveys respect to all people, and promotes equity and inclusivity. Manuscripts should use inclusive language throughout, make no assumptions about any reader's beliefs or commitments, and contain nothing that might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, gender, ethnicity, ability, culture, or any other characteristic. Use gender inclusive language (they/them) unless the gender of the person is known, and gender is relevant. For guidance on equitable and inclusive language please refer to the AMA and AAMC equity guide at https://www.ama-assn.org/system/files/ama-aamc-equity-guide.pdf.
The Journal of Emergency Nursing editorial team recognizes that race is a sociopolitical construct that has relevance in publishing when examining the impact that racism has on social and health inequities. The editorial team at the Journal of Emergency Nursing expect manuscripts to clearly demonstrate an antiracist stance. Authors must refrain from explicitly or implicitly blaming or causing other forms of harm to people who experience racism and oppression. Avoid any language or context that perpetuates stereotypes or biased concepts.
The generic name of a drug is used instead of the proprietary name whenever possible. If it is necessary to use a trading name for a drug, the name is capitalized and inserted parenthetically after the generic name when first mentioned. Use the FDA/ISMP tall lettering system for all look-alike, sound-alike medications. Product names are treated similarly, and the manufacturer's full name, city, and state are cited in parentheses in the text after the mention of the product name.
Weights and measurements are expressed in metric units and temperature in degrees centigrade followed by Fahrenheit degrees in parentheses.
For numbers containing decimals, express to a maximum of two decimal places. If rounding is carried out in tabular material, please add a table footnote to note that values have been rounded.
P values are to be expressed to two decimal places except when the result is P < .001. Do not round to two decimal places when significance will be affected (eg, P = .049 to P = .05).
There is no zero before the decimal point (P < .05) or P values only.
Exact P values should always be provided regardless of whether they are significant.
If the P value is between .045 and .055, three digits may be used. If the value is less than .001, use the expression P < .001 (rather than P < .0001 or P = .0003, for example). If P = 1.00, change to P > .99.
Exact P values to two decimal places.
All P values should be expressed to two digits, unless the first two digits are zero, in which case they should be expressed to three digits.
Required Author Disclosure Forms
Upon submitting their revised paper, authors are required to submit one of the two forms listed below, EITHER 1) the ICMJE COI Form OR 2) the Elsevier Declaration Tool Form.
ICJME COI Form: This form will allow authors to disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. As part of the online submission process, authors must complete and submit the ICJME Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest upon submission of their revised submission. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. See also https://www.elsevier.com/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/92476/ETHICS_COI02.pdf.
Elsevier Declaration Tool: This form will allow authors to disclose a Declaration of Interests in the areas of Reported Work, Other Support, Intellectual Property and Other Activities.
TOP Guidelines: The Journal of Emergency Nursing expects the highest ethical standards from their authors, reviewers, and editors when conducting research, submitting papers, and throughout the entire peer-review process. Journal of Emergency Nursing supports Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines.
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interest in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file. If there are no interests to declare, then please state this: Declarations of interest: none. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.
Each author must declare their contribution to the article. All authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.
Conflicts of interest or competing interests
Authors must disclose any commercial associations that could pose a conflict of interest or financial bias. Corresponding authors are also responsible for submitting co-authors' Conflict of Interest declarations. These include consultation fees, patent-licensing arrangements, company stock, payments for conducting or publicizing a study, travel, honoraria, gifts, or meals. If the manuscript is accepted for publication, the editor will determine how any conflict of interest should be disclosed.
References are expected to be to the original (primary) sources of information in most instances. References should be published in the last three to five years, unless there is a compelling reason for inclusion. Include reference DOI numbers when available. Responsibility for the accuracy of references lies entirely with the authors.
If copyrighted material is used in the manuscript, a permission statement from the copyright holder is to be uploaded. Upon submitting the manuscript at the Editorial Manager, instructions for concurrent submission of the permission letter(s) will be provided.
For research manuscripts, an electronic copy of the Ethical Statement (also called the Institutional Review Board (IRB) permission letter) from the institution that granted permission to conduct the research study must accompany the first submission. An English translation must also be submitted if the IRB letter in not in English. For Quality Improvement (QI) or Evidenced-Based Practice (EBP) projects, reports of projects involving human participants must include a statement explaining what type of ethical oversight was required, or describing the ethical standards followed at the author's organization to conduct the QI or EBP project. This should include a copy of a policy exempting single-site QI projects from IRB oversight, IRB exemption from review letters, or IRB approval. The Ethical Statement is to be uploaded to the "Ethical Statement" section of the manuscript in the EM submission system at https://www.editorialmanager.com/jen.
Data, Code, and Research Materials Availability Section
For research manuscripts, authors should provide a data availability statement indicating whether the data, methods used in the analysis, code, and materials used to conduct the research will be made available to any researcher for purposes of reproducing the results or replicating the procedure. In both the author note and at the end of the method section, either specify where that material will be available or note the ethical or legal reasons for not doing so.
Photographs of identifiable persons, whether patients or staff, must be accompanied by signed releases, such as the following: "I hereby give [author's name] permission to use the photograph of [subject's name] in the Journal of Emergency Nursing."
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider the list and order of authors carefully prior to submitting their manuscript, providing the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if the Journal Editor approves. To request such a change, the editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (email, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal, or rearrangement. In the case of adding or removing authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Only in exceptional circumstances will the editor consider the authors' addition, deletion, or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the editor will result in a corrigendum.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the manuscript and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. It should be stated if the funding source(s) had no such involvement. Authors must disclose to the reader if they are a consultant or have any other conflict of interest in relation to the funding source with manuscript submission.
Formatting of funding sources: List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance with funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].
Including detailed descriptions of the program or type of grants and awards is not necessary. When identifying funding from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence: This research did not receive any specific grant from the public, commercial, or not-for-profit funding agencies.
All images should be at least 5 inches wide. Graphics software such as Photoshop and Illustrator, not presentation software such as PowerPoint, CorelDraw, or Harvard Graphics, should be used to create art. Grayscale images must be at least 300 DPI (600+ DPI recommended). Combinations of grayscale and line art should be at least 1200 DPI.
If copyrighted material is used in the manuscript, a permission statement from the copyright holder must be uploaded with the first revision. Upon submitting the manuscript at the Editorial Manager, instructions for concurrent submission of the permission letter(s) will be provided.
References used only in a figure but not in the text must be listed in chronological order in the references cited section. Refer to the AMA Manual of Style, 11th Edition for more information (http://www.amamanualofstyle.com).
Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier. Use only one font type.
Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files for upload during submission.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available. You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
Supply files that are too low in resolution.
Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Color Artwork Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF [or JPEG], EPS [or PDF], or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted manuscript, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. Due to the increased cost for color reproduction in print, please indicate at the time of submission if there is a strong reason your figures should also print in color. The Journal of Emergency Nursing has a small budget of print color pages per issue and the editor-in-chief will decide what artwork will print in color free of charge when manuscripts are selected for issues. If you are willing to pay for your artwork to print in color, please also let the editor know at submission, or let the Journal Manager know during the production process and a color art estimate can be sent to you. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) you may be asked to submit usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.
Figure captions Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their manuscript are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the manuscript. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting where it should be placed in the body text. All submitted files should be labeled appropriately to directly relate to the video file's content. To ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your manuscript in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the manuscript that refer to this content.
Supplementary material such as applications, images, and sound clips, can be published with your manuscript to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the manuscript and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please ensure the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files is switched off when updating to prevent 'tracking' from appearing in the published version.
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that support your research publication where appropriate and to interlink the data with your published manuscripts. Research data refer to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods, and other useful materials related to the project.
Below are several ways to associate data with your manuscript or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you share data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.
Data linking If your research data is available in a data repository, you can link your manuscript directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with several repositories to link manuscripts on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
There are different ways to link your datasets to your manuscript. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your manuscript by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.
In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
Mendeley Data This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open-access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published manuscript online.
Data statement To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. Suppose your data are unavailable to access or unsuitable to post. In that case, you will have the opportunity to indicate the reason or rationale during the submission process by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published manuscript on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.
DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIFIC ARTICLE TYPES
Protocols High quality research and review protocols are welcomed as Protocols submissions.. The peer review and publishing of a fully citable protocol article can help improve the standard and transparency of research, reduce publication bias and improve reproducibility. Research should not have begun at the time of protocol submission, and recruitment and reviews should not have entered the data extraction stage. Research and review protocols that have already undergone ethical and independent peer review may be considered for publication without further peer review at the decision editor's discretion. Authors should provide the relevant documentation of review and funding at the time of submission, as applicable. Systematic reviews should undergo prospective registration in PROSPERO, Open Science Framework, or another relevant registration platform. Authors should also consider registration platforms such as ClinicalTrials.gov for applicable research protocols. Randomized trials protocols should follow the SPIRIT guidelines, and review protocols should follow the PRISMA-P guidelines.
Detailed Description of Clinical Science Translation Review Manuscripts
Clinical Science Translation Reviews are timely, authoritative, and clinically oriented manuscripts with an evidenced-based synthesis of current knowledge on a topic that is fundamental to emergency nursing and emergency care (including advanced practice nursing in the emergency setting). Many Clinical Science Translation Reviews are initiated by invitation to authors who are recognized experts in the field and who also have substantive prior publications on the topic. While it is expected that the author's previously published work may be succinctly summarized with proper citation, the manuscript must differ from the previous publications and be sufficiently tailored to the emergency nursing audience with elaboration on portions of the work most relevant to emergency clinical practice. Thus, it is expected that the work is not reiterated, repetitive, or duplicated. The paper will include
synthesis of the evidence along with one or more clinically pertinent themes,
implications for emergency nurses, and
scrutiny of overall evidence quality and gaps with future directions for research that informs clinical practice in the emergency care setting.
Methodology and search strategy are not required as Clinical Science Translation Reviews are a venue for leading experts and researchers engaged in active research programs to communicate timely updates and recent advances relevant to the clinical reader. Infographics, illustrations, and figures are strongly encouraged.
Unsolicited proposals for Clinical Science Translation Reviews are welcome with an outline submitted to the Editor-in-Chief at [email protected]. Please include "Clinical Science Translational Reviews Editor Inquiry" in the email subject line.
All submitted manuscripts, including those invited, will undergo peer review when possible. Invited manuscripts will undergo expedited peer review. Invited manuscripts may be declined for publication in the Journal of Emergency Nursing.
Detailed Descriptions of Sections
Section articles are peer reviewed. Contributing authors are to submit section papers directly to the appropriate section editor from the list below. The section editor works with the corresponding author until the paper is completed. The author then submits the paper to JEN for peer review. The Editor-in-Chief makes the final decision regarding publication.
Advanced Emergency Clinicians' Corner Advanced Emergency Clinicians' Corner publishes commentary, case reviews, original research, and educational information as evidenced-based knowledge translation for a target audience of advanced practice clinicians, nurse practitioners, physicians, physician assistants, and clinical nurse specialists in emergency care. Published information is relevant to the practice, teaching and research of advanced practice emergency clinicians.
Advanced Emergency Clinicians' Corner Section Editors: Send submissions to Darleen Williams DNP, CNS, CEN, CCNS, CNS-BC, EMT-P at [email protected] or Elizabeth Card, MSN, RN, APRN, FNP-BC, CPAN, CCRP, FASPAN at [email protected].
Case Review Case reviews report unfolding, individual patient data that integrates best-practice evidence with clinical reasoning mastery relevant to emergency care. The Journal of Emergency Nursing prioritizes the publication of case reviews that provide insights on rare diseases, unusual presentations of common disease, decision making in the context of multiple morbidities, novel treatments, or the identification of unusual adverse or beneficial effects of diagnostics or therapeutics. Other case reviews to enhance the clinical reasoning of novice emergency nurses on standards of care will also be considered. Authors are strongly encouraged to adhere to the Equator Network's CARE Guidelines, Checklist, and Resources before submitting to the Journal of Emergency Nursing. Case reviews must adhere to Elsevier's Patient Consent policy for publication. A statement confirming that patient consent was obtained must be included with the case review manuscript.
Clinical Nurses Forum Clinical Nurses Forum publishes commentary, intervention development, case reviews, original research, quality improvement programs, and educational information as evidenced-based knowledge translation for a target audience of stretcher side emergency nurses. The published information is relevant to the practice, teaching, and quality improvement research of stretcher side clinical nurses. Authors are strongly advised to adhere to the Equator Network's CARE Guidelines, Checklist, and Resources for case reviews and TIDieR Guidelines and Checklist for intervention development before submitting to the Journal of Emergency Nursing.
Clinical Nurses Forum Section Editor: Send submissions to Amber Adams, DNP, RN at [email protected].
Clinical Practice Guidelines Clinical practice guidelines submissions are welcomed and must adhere to AGREE reporting guidelines. The Journal of Emergency Nursing publishes clinical practice guidelines that are developed and revised by the ENA Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) committee. These clinical practice guidelines adhere to the rigorous standards for CPG development and are extensively peer-reviewed before publication by members of the CPG committee and the Emergency Nursing Research Advisory Council.
Emergency Nursing Review Questions The certification review questions are written according to the blueprint of the Certification for Emergency Nursing (CEN) exam. Questions are presented along with correct answers and rationales for answers, with current references for further study.
Emergency Nursing Review Questions Section Editors: Send submissions to Benny Marett, EdD, MSN, CEN, TCRN, CCRN, COHN, NPD-C, NE-C, FAEN, FAHA at [email protected] or Sara Webb, MSN, C-PNP, CFNP, C-NPT, Paramedic at [email protected].
Geriatric Update The Geriatric Update section publishes information related to the older adult. This includes education on assessment and practice issues, identification and prevention of complications, ethical considerations, and education related to those who provide care for the older adult. The goal has been to increase awareness of geriatric issues and be a resource for geriatric care.
Geriatric Update Section Editor: Send submissions to Joan Somes, PhD, RN-BC, CEN, CPEN, FAEN, NRP at [email protected].
Heart Matters The Heart Matters section in the Journal of Emergency Nursing focuses on emerging evidence-based interventions and best practice guidelines on cardiovascular emergencies relevant to care delivered by emergency nurses. Specifically, Heart Matters highlights clinical information relevant to the advanced role of nurse practitioners and clinical nurse specialists in diagnosing, guiding, and managing acute cardiovascular emergencies. Concise, well-referenced reviews to update readers on a clinical topic or case reviews on a topic that applies explicitly to advanced cardiovascular practice are welcomed. Manuscripts focusing on advanced practice nursing education, legislation, health policy, practice improvement and other advanced practice cardiovascular nursing issues are also welcome.
Heart Matters Section Editor: Send submissions to Mohamed Toufic El-Hussein PhD, RN, NP at [email protected].
Images (May not be peer-reviewed) The Images section publishes a radiology diagnostic image or a forensic or clinical photograph with a brief description to share and deepen the depth and breadth of assessment and diagnostic knowledge and experience relevant to a particularly interesting or unusual emergency case. Images submissions must adhere to Elsevier's Patient Consent policy for publication.
Impressions (Not peer-reviewed) Impressions publishes brief first-person narrative essays, art, or poetry reflecting the human emotion and experiences of emergency clinicians, patients, and families. Submissions longer than 2 double-spaced, 11-point font pages will be considered for the "On the Other Side of the Rails" blog.
Injury Prevention The Injury Prevention section provides evidence-based and best practice guidance for emergency nurses related to primary, secondary, and tertiary injury prevention strategies that can be used to reduce mortality and morbidity in their practice environment and communities. The Journal of Emergency Nursing welcomes manuscripts designed to support Trauma Center Certification and manuscripts that include a program and/or program evaluation logic model are strongly encouraged.
International Nursing The International column in the Journal of Emergency Nursing enables the dissemination of best practice, evidence-based emergency nursing with a global view. Written by North American and international authors, the goal of the section is to share commonalities and differences in our emergency nursing practice in caring for diverse patient populations in various locations and circumstances.
International Nursing Section Editors: Send submissions to Pat Clutter, MEd, BSN, RN, CEN, FAEN at [email protected] or Nancy Mannion, DNP, RN, CEN, FAEN at [email protected].
Leadership Forum The Leadership Forum is dedicated to disseminating evidence-based, best practice tools and applications for strategic planning, system leadership, quality management, continuous improvement, organizational development, and change. The section is designed to support the practice of executive leaders, managers, directors, entrepreneurs, policymakers, and academic leaders. Full-length economic or cost analysis, quality improvement, and comparative effectiveness projects should be submitted as original research. The recommended length for the Leadership Section is 1500 words, excluding abstract (optional), references, figures, and tables. JEN prioritizes manuscripts that include either a program and/or program evaluation logic model, management tool (e.g., fishbone diagram, SWOT analysis, etc.), or disseminate organizational policy interventions following TIDieR-PHP guidelines.
Leadership Section Editor: Send submissions to Patricia Kunz Howard, Ph.D., RN, CEN, CPEN, TCREN, NE-BC, FAEN, FAAN at [email protected].
Nurse Educator Nurse Educator publishes evidence-based commentary, educational program description and evaluation, content enrichment, case reviews, and innovative educational intervention development manuscripts. These manuscripts focus on curriculum, pedagogy, and teaching-learning topics for educators in professional development or academic settings.
Nurse Educator Section Editor: Send submissions to Jacqueline Stewart, DNP, RN, CEN CCRN, FAEN at [email protected].
On the Other Side of the Rails (JEN Blog) (Not peer-reviewed) Other Side of the Rails Blog is not peer-reviewed and offers a story-telling forum for perspectives on emergency nursing. The JEN blog is only published online, and focuses on first-person narrative essays, art, or poetry reflecting the human emotion and experiences that create shared insights and heart-to-heart connections for emergency clinicians, patients, and families. Submissions to the blog should be less than 1000 words.
On the Other Side of the Rails Blog Editors: Send submissions to Lynn Visser, MSN, RN, PHN, CEN, CPEN or Charlie Hawknuff, MSN, APRN, FNP-BC, CEN, TCRN at [email protected].
Pediatric Update The Pediatric Update section is for emergency nurses who provide direct care to pediatric patients in emergency settings that treat pediatric and adult patients. Innovative pediatric topics should focus on ways the bedside emergency nurse can improve pediatric care. Multidisciplinary pediatric case reviews are welcomed.
Pediatric Update Section Editor: Send submissions to Patricia A. Normandin, DNP, RN, CEN, CPN, CPEN, FAEN at Pa[email protected].
Pharm/Tox Corner Pharm/Tox Corner provides evidence-based updates and best practice guidance on pharmacology and toxicology information for the frontline emergency clinician.
Trauma Notebook Trauma Notebook publications focus on new or emerging trends and psychomotor skill techniques for the injured patient's care. Case studies and evidence-based short papers that provide clinician-to-clinician insight are strongly encouraged.
Trauma Notebook Section Editor: Send submissions to Steve Weinman, MSc, BSN, RN, CEN, TCRN, NHDP-BC, TR-C, EMT at [email protected].
Triage Decisions The Triage Decisions section focuses on all triage process and practice aspects, including symptom-based triage considerations, throughput processes, and disaster triage practice.
Triage Decisions Section Editor: Send submissions to Andi Foley, DNP, RN, ACCNS-AG, CEN, FAEN at [email protected].
Understanding Research The Understanding Research section is generally authored by the Emergency Nursing Research advisory council members to support emergency nursing in generating, interpreting, and applying original emergency nursing research to their practice.
Understanding Research Section Editor: Send submissions to Lisa Wolf, PhD, RN, CEN, FAEN at [email protected].
The following items must be included in the Journal of Emergency Nursing manuscript submission. If there are checklist items missing upon submission the paper will be returned to the author.
Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
One author has been designated as the corresponding author, with contact details.
Author credentials are in the following order: highest academic credential (e.g., MSN), licensure (e.g., RN), certification(s) (e.g., CEN), honorary recognition (e.g., FAEN). Pronouns if desired.
ORCID ID number
Structured abstract for research, review, and quality improvement papers (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion) with ≤250 words.
Optional unstructured abstract for clinical, focused or column papers.
Author contribution and CRediT statement
3 to 6 MeSH Key Words
"Contribution to Emergency Nursing Practice" followed by author responses to the 3 questions listed above in this document.
Equator Network checklist that most closely aligns with the design must be included with the manuscript (www.equatornetwork.org) with page and line numbers of the manuscript that correspond to each checklist item.
ICMJE COI Form: See the description above under “Required Author Disclosure Forms” or
Elsevier Declaration Tool: See the description above under “Required Author Disclosure Forms.”
Original artwork (high-resolution images) as appropriate.
All tables (including title, description, and footnotes). Tables are to have separate columns for N, %, M, SD, point estimate, and P value.
P values are to be expressed to two decimal places, eg, "P = 0.05," the exception being using three decimal places when the result is P < 0.001.
All abbreviations must be spelled out the first time they are used with the abbreviation following in parentheses.
Manuscript has been "spell-checked" and "grammar-checked."
Include DOI links in all references, where possible (not all references will have associated DOIs). You may use the following website to search for DOIs: https://pubmed.gov.
Conflict of interest or competing interest declarations. Corresponding authors are also responsible for submitting co-authors' Conflict of Interest declarations. There will be a prompt for this requirement in Editorial Manager upon submission.
Permission has been obtained for the use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web), and the permission statement from the copyright holder has been uploaded.
Submit an electronic copy of the IRB Determination Letter (or equivalent) for all research and quality improvement manuscripts. If the Letter is not in English, a translation must be submitted along with the original Letter. It may be translated by the author(s). A copy of the institution's policy must be submitted if the institution's facility exempts single-site quality improvement research from IRB oversight.
Color figures are marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web and in print (for a fee) or to be reproduced in color on the Web and black-in-white in print (free of charge).
Tall lettering for look-alike-sound-alike medications.
Formatting in AMA Manual of Style 11th Edition, unless noted otherwise in these guidelines.
Role of the funding source.
Weights and measurements are to be expressed in metric units and temperature in degrees centigrade followed by Fahrenheit degrees in parentheses.
For numbers containing decimals, express to a maximum of two decimal places.
SUBMITTING YOUR MANUSCRIPT TO THE JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY NURSING
All submitted manuscripts must be original material that has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal at the time of submission to the Journal of Emergency Nursing. The review process customarily requires approximately 8 weeks, though there are exceptions. Inquiry emails after 8 weeks to ask about the decision are welcomed.
All manuscript submissions must be submitted through the Journal of Emergency Nursing online submission and review Website (Editorial Manager). The Website guides authors stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. Authors are to submit the text, tables, and artwork in the electronic form to this address. Submission items include a cover letter, the manuscript (including title page, abstract [for research and practice improvement manuscripts only], main text with all text pages numbered, along with 'Continuous' line numbering, references, tables, figures, and table/figure legends, permission statement(s) for any copyrighted material [save as a separate file for upload], and electronic copy of the IRB permission letter when applicable [save as a separate file for upload].) Authors are responsible for statistical analysis, which must be reviewed for accuracy prior to manuscript submission. Revised or resubmitted manuscripts should be accompanied by a "Response to Reviewers" page with specific responses to the editor and reviewer recommendations. Resubmitted manuscripts are to be identified as such in the cover letter. The submission order of files is as follows: cover letter, manuscript file(s), table(s), figure(s). Files are to be labeled with appropriate and descriptive file names (e.g., SmithText.doc, Fig1.eps, Table3.doc).
Authors must submit their manuscripts electronically to this journal at https://www.editorialmanager.com/jen. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the manuscript, which is used in the peer-review process. All correspondence, including notification of the editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by via the Editorial Manager (EM) system.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described in the manuscript has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, preprint, a published lecture, a poster, or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically, without the written consent of the copyright holder. To verify originality, your manuscript may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.
Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the editor finds your manuscript more suitable in one of our other participating journals, you may be asked to consider transferring the manuscript to one of those. If you agree, your manuscript will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your manuscript will be reviewed again by the journal to which it was transferred. More information.
This journal operates a review process where the authors and reviewers are blinded to one another, unless the reviewers choose to sign their review, which makes their identity visible to the author. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to an appropriate number of expert reviewers to assess the paper's scientific quality. The editor is responsible for the final decision regarding the acceptance or rejection of manuscripts. The editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.
Please write your text using American or British English style and grammar, but not a mixture of both. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.
The Emergency Nurses Association copyrights manuscripts published in the Journal of Emergency Nursing. Authors who wish to republish their manuscript in part or in whole elsewhere must request permission to do so. Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of manuscripts including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult https://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the manuscripts. In these cases, Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors: please consult https://www.elsevier.com/permissions.
Upon acceptance of a manuscript, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An email will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
As an author, you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your manuscript (see more information on this).
Authors must provide a detailed response to the editor and reviewer comments in the "Response to Reviewers" file. All editor and reviewer comments and the author's response to each must be listed on the "Response to Reviewers" document created by the author. See this blog for suggestions: https://nursology.net/2022/09/13/responding-to-peer-review/
One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by email to the corresponding author (if we do not have an email address then paper proofs will be sent by post), or a link will be provided in the email to allow authors to review the uncorrected proof and make corrections as requested by the editorial team. To ensure a quick turnaround from final submission to publication, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days.
Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness, and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the manuscript as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the editor. We will do everything possible to get your manuscript published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as the inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the manuscript on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the manuscript via any communication channel, including e-mail and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form, which can be sent once the manuscript is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article via Gold Open Access do not receive a Share Link. Their final published version of the article is available through open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the manuscript DOI link.
Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
DETAILS ON THE JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY NURSING ETHICS, POLICIES, FORMS, AND REQUIREMENTS
The Journal is a Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) member and follows COPE guidance.
The editor(s) and publisher of the Journal of Emergency Nursing believe that fundamental principles are underlying scholarly or professional publishing. While this may not amount to a formal "code of conduct," these fundamental principles with respect to the authors' paper are that the paper should:
A) be the authors' own original manuscript, which has not been previously published elsewhere
B) reflect the authors' own research and analysis and do so in a truthful and complete manner
C) properly credit the meaningful contributions of co-authors and co-researchers
D) not be submitted to more than one journal for consideration (ensuring it is not under redundant simultaneous peer review)
E) be appropriately placed in the context of prior and existing research. For a full description of the standards of expected ethical behavior by all parties involved in the publishing process (the author, the journal editor, the peer reviewer, the publisher, and the society for society-owned or sponsored journals) please see www.elsevier.com.
Of equal importance are ethical guidelines dealing with research methods and funding, including issues dealing with informed consent, research subject privacy rights, conflicts of interest, and funding sources.
While it may not be possible to draft a "code" that applies adequately to all instances and circumstances, we believe it useful to outline our expectations of authors and procedures that the Journal of Emergency Nursing will employ in the event of questions concerning author conduct. Relevant conflicts of interest should be disclosed (see www.elsevier.com).
The Journal of Emergency Nursing (JEN) welcomes unsolicited manuscripts.
Manuscripts that are published as print manuscripts in JEN will also be published online in the correlating online issue of JEN. Manuscripts that JEN designates as online-only will not be published in hardcopy, although they will be listed in the hardcopy table of contents. All JEN manuscripts, print or online, are recognized as published manuscripts. When an author is notified via e-mail of the JEN issue to which their accepted manuscript is assigned, they will also be notified whether their manuscript will be published as online-only, hybrid online and print, or in hardcopy.
All submitted manuscripts must be original material that has not been published in another scholarly, indexed journal and is not under consideration by another journal at the time of submission to JEN.
Required Permission for Copyrighted Materials
The author is responsible for obtaining and submitting proof of copyright permission for any material from previously published sources, including excerpted text, illustrations, charts, tables, photographs, etc. Proof of permission must be submitted along with the first revision in the form of a letter or document expressly granting permission for re-use of the material from the holder of the copyright. To determine whether a manuscript includes material(s) requiring copyright permission, authors are instructed to review the Elsevier Permissions Guidelines at the following link: https://www.elsevier.com/about/policies/copyright/permissions. The information at this site will provide details to assist the author in determining whether permission is required in her/his particular case, as well as simple instructions to follow in order to obtain permission should that be necessary.
The Journal of Emergency Nursing welcomes pre-prints as manuscript submissions. Authors must notify the editor in the cover letter that the paper appears as a pre-print and provide a copy of the pre-print and/or URL link to the pre-print. If accepted for publication, authors are expected to update the pre-print with a link to their formal publication using the DOI (Digital Object Identifier). Pre-prints should not be changed, enhanced, or altered in any way to substitute for the version printed in the Journal of Emergency Nursing.
Policies can be found at the Elsevier website.
GUIDANCE FOR NEW AUTHORS
Citation in text Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication.' Citing of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Reference links Responsibility for the accuracy of references lies entirely with the authors. Increased discoverability of research and high-quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. To allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef, and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic manuscript. Include DOIs in references when possible.
Web references As a minimum, the full URL is to be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information should also be given, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.). Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired or included in the reference list.
Data references This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published manuscript.
Reference management software Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their manuscript, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.